Criminal Defense of Immigrants
§ 3.62 VIII. Cultural Effects on Medical Investigation
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Because of language and cultural differences between the client’s culture and the dominant culture in the United States, it may be more difficult than usual to obtain accurate assessments of the client’s psychological or physical state. Many feel that there are cultural and language biases in standardized tests.
 See, e.g., Elderkine-Thompson, et al., When Nurses Double as Interpreters: A Study of Spanish-Speaking Patients in a U.S. Primary Care Setting, 52 Soc. Sci. & Med., No. 9 (May, 2001).
 LaCalle, Forensic Psychological Evaluations Through an Interpreter: Legal and Ethical Issues, 5 Am. J. Forensic Psychol. 29 (1987); Laosa, Ethnic, Socioeconomic and Home Lay Influences Upon Early Performance on Measures of Abilities, 76 J. Ed. Psychol. 1178 (1984); Dana, Culturally Competent MMPI Assessment of Hispanic Populations, 17 Hispanic J. of Behav. Sci. No. 3 (1995).