§ 19.49 h. Intent Element
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The United States Supreme Court has held that violent physical force must have been intentionally used in the commission of the offense in order to qualify as a crime of violence under 18 U.S.C. § 16(a). However, the same standard is not necessarily applied under 18 U.S.C. § 16(b).
 Leocal v. Ashcroft, 543 U.S. 1, 125 S.Ct. 377 (Nov. 9, 2004).
AGGRAVATED FELONY " CRIME OF VIOLENCE " INTENT
Matter of Singh, 25 I. & N. Dec. 670 (BIA 2012) (an offense that may be committed recklessly may still be considered an aggravated felony crime of violence under 18 U.S.C. 16(b)).
AGGRAVATED FELONY - CRIME OF VIOLENCE - 18 U.S.C. 16(b) -- MASSACHUSETTS CONVICTION OF ASSAULT ON OFFICER UNDER WANTON OR RECKLESS THEORY CONSTITUTED CRIME OF VIOLENCE UNDER 16(b) SINCE IT HAS A SUBSTANTIAL RISK THE DEFENDANT WILL USE FORCE TO COMMIT THE OFFENSE
Blake v. Gonzales, ___ F.3d ___, ___, 2007 WL 914865 (2d Cir. March 28, 2007) (Massachusetts statute defining offense of assault on police officer and other categories of public official, Massachusetts General Laws chapter 265, section 13D, under the wanton or reckless theory of assault, constitutes a crime of violence under 18 U.S.C. 16(b), since it offers a substantial risk the defendant will use force to commit the offense; the court found that Massachusetts law required physical or bodily injury to convict).
AGGRAVATED FELONY " CRIME OF VIOLENCE " 18 U.S.C. 16(b) " RECKLESS MENS REA DOES NOT NECESSARILY BAR CRIME OF VIOLENCE UNDER 18 U.S.C. 16(b)
Aguilar v. Attorney General of the U.S., ___ F.3d ___, 2011 WL 5925141 (3d Cir. Nov. 29, 2011) (Pennsylvania conviction of sexual assault, under 18 Pa. Cons.Stat. 3124.1, constituted a crime of violence under 18 U.S.C. 16(b), and was therefore an aggravated felony under INA 101(a)(43)(F), 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(43)(F), even though the offense has a minimum mens rea of recklessness; because sexual assault raises a substantial risk that the perpetrator will intentionally use force in furtherance of the offense, we agree with the BIA that it constitutes a crime of violence under 16(b).).
AGGRAVATED FELONY - CRIME OF VIOLENCE - BURGLARY
United States v. Constante, 544 F.3d 584 (5th Cir. Oct. 6, 2008) (Texas conviction for burglary, in violation of Texas Penal Code 30.02(a)(3) [enters a building or habitation and commits or attempts to commit a felony, theft, or an assault] did not constitute a crime of violence for ACCA purposes where statute of conviction does not require specific intent).