Criminal Defense of Immigrants


§ 6.32 B. DHS Enforcement of Criminal Arrest Warrants

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Second Circuit

Dulal-Whiteway v. US Dep't of Homeland Sec., 501 F.3d 116 (2d Cir. Sept. 19, 2007) (neither a PSR, nor a statement of restitution, are included in the record of conviction; "Though the Shepard Court did not address the issue of a restitution order, its logic clearly excludes such a document [from the record of conviction]. The restitution set by a judge is based on a loss amount established by a preponderance of the evidence and need not be tied to the facts admitted by a defendant's plea. See 18 U.S.C. 1664(e) (Any dispute as to the proper amount or type of restitution shall be resolved by the court by the preponderance of the evidence.); United States v. Reifler, 446 F.3d 65, 118 (2d Cir. 2006) (rejecting defendants' contentions that the orders requiring them to make restitution for loss amounts not admitted in their plea allocutions violated their rights under the Sixth Amendment as enunciated in [United States v.] Booker, [543 U.S. 220 (2005) ], because the principle that jury findings, or admissions by the defendant, establish the maximum authorized punishment has no application to MVRA orders of restitution). In other words, the amount of restitution is not constrained by facts on which the plea necessarily rested."; "the BIA may rely only upon facts actually and necessarily found beyond a reasonable doubt by a jury or judge in order to establish the elements of the offense, as indicated by a charging document or jury instructions. For convictions following a plea, the BIA may rely only upon facts to which a defendant actually and necessarily pleaded in order to establish the elements of the offense, as indicated by a charging document, written plea agreement, or plea colloquy transcript."), disagreeing with Conteh v. Gonzales, 461 F.3d 45 (1st Cir.2006).