The narrow holding of Padilla does not apply where a defendant represented him- or herself in the criminal case, because there is no defense counsel in the case who is obligated affirmatively to give accurate advice concerning the immigration consequences of the plea.
The federal accessory-after-the-fact statute, 18 U.S.C. 3, can be a tool for creating misdemeanors. Any federal offense with a two-year maximum can be reduced to a misdemeanor (with a one-year maximum) by pleading to accessory after the fact to that offense. This is useful where it is important to have a misdemeanor conviction, rather than a felony. E.g., aggravated felony crimes of violence under 18 U.S.C.